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kamekiti.info is not in any way responsible for the content of the pages to which it links. We encourage you to if ever find a link in question pertaining to. Vídeos Pornôs: Gays, Gay Brasil, Anal, Crossdress, Adolescentes, Gay Dormindo e muito mais. HeLa cells grown in culture and stained with antibody to tubulin (green), antibody to Ki (red) and the blue DNA binding dye DAPI. The tubulin antibody shows the.
It is the oldest and most commonly used human cell line. The cell line was found to be remarkably durable and prolific which warrants its extensive use in scientific research.
The cells from Lacks' cancerous cervical tumor were taken without her knowledge or consent. As was custom for Gey's lab assistant, she labeled the culture 'HeLa', the first two letters of the patient's first and last name; this became the name of the cell line.
These were the first human cells grown in a lab that were naturally "immortal", meaning that they do not die after a set number of cell divisions i. These cells could be used for conducting a multitude of medical experiments—if the cells died, they could simply be discarded and the experiment attempted again on fresh cells from the culture. This represented an enormous boon to medical and biological research. The stable growth of HeLa enabled a researcher at the University of Minnesota hospital to successfully grow polio virus, enabling the development of a vaccine,  and by , Jonas Salk developed a vaccine for polio using these cells.
In , HeLa cells were the first human cells successfully cloned  and demand for the HeLa cells quickly grew in the nascent biomedical industry. Since the cells' first mass replications, they have been used by scientists in various types of investigations including disease research, gene mapping , and effects of toxic substances and radiation on humans. Scientists have grown an estimated 20 tons of HeLa cells,   and there are almost 11, patents involving these cells.
The cells were propagated by George Otto Gey shortly before Lacks died of her cancer in This was the first human cell line to prove successful in vitro , which was a scientific achievement with profound future benefit to medical research. Gey freely donated these cells along with the tools and processes that his lab developed to any scientist requesting them simply for the benefit of science.
Neither Lacks nor her family gave permission to harvest the cells but, at that time, permission was neither required nor customarily sought. There was no requirement at that time or at present to inform patients or their relatives about such matters because discarded material or material obtained during surgery, diagnosis, or therapy was the property of the physician or the medical institution.
Regents of the University of California. The court ruled that a person's discarded tissue and cells are not his or her property and can be commercialized. HeLa cells, like other cell lines, are termed "immortal" in that they can divide an unlimited number of times in a laboratory cell culture plate as long as fundamental cell survival conditions are met i.
There are many strains of HeLa cells as they continue to mutate in cell cultures , but all HeLa cells are descended from the same tumor cells removed from Lacks. The total number of HeLa cells that have been propagated in cell culture far exceeds the total number of cells that were in Henrietta Lacks' body. HeLa cells were used by Jonas Salk to test the first polio vaccine in the s. They were observed to be easily infected by poliomyelitis , causing infected cells to die.
HeLa cells have been used in testing how parvo virus infects cells of humans, HeLa, dogs, and cats. OROV causes the disruption of cells in culture, where cells begin to degenerate shortly after they are infected, causing viral induction of apoptosis. HeLa cells were used to investigate the phytochemical compounds and the fundamental mechanism of the anticancer activity of the ethanolic extract of mango peel EEMP.
EEMP was found to contain various phenolic compounds and to activate death of human cervical malignant HeLa cells through apoptosis , which suggests that EEMP may help to prevent cervical cancer as well as other types of cancers. In , HeLa cells were used in tests of novel heptamethine dyes IR and other analogs which are currently being explored for their unique uses in medical diagnostics, the development of theranostics , the individualized treatment of cancer patients with the aid of PDT , co-administration with other drugs, and irradiation.
The HeLa cell line was derived for use in cancer research. These cells proliferate abnormally rapidly, even compared to other cancer cells. Like many other cancer cells,  HeLa cells have an active version of telomerase during cell division,  which prevents the incremental shortening of telomeres that is implicated in aging and eventual cell death. In this way, the cells circumvent the Hayflick limit , which is the limited number of cell divisions that most normal cells can undergo before becoming senescent.
Horizontal gene transfer from human papillomavirus 18 HPV18 to human cervical cells created the HeLa genome, which is different from Henrietta Lacks' genome in various ways, including its number of chromosomes.
HeLa cells are rapidly dividing cancer cells, and the number of chromosomes varied during cancer formation and cell culture. Researchers have also noted how stable these aberrant karyotypes can be: An 8q24 copy number increase was detected by CGH.
Dual-color FISH with a c-MYC probe mapping to 8q24 revealed colocalization with HPV18 at all integration sites, indicating that dispersion and amplification of the c-MYC gene sequences occurred after and was most likely triggered by the viral insertion at a single integration site. The HeLa genome has been remarkably stable after years of continuous cultivation; therefore, the genetic alterations detected may have been present in the primary tumor and reflect events that are relevant to the development of cervical cancer.
The committee consists of six members including representatives from the medical, scientific, and bioethics fields, as well as two members of the Lacks family. HeLa cells are sometimes difficult to control because of their adaptation to growth in tissue culture plates.
Through improper maintenance, they have been known to contaminate other cell cultures in the same laboratory, interfering with biological research and forcing researchers to declare many results invalid. The degree of HeLa cell contamination among other cell types is unknown because few researchers test the identity or purity of already established cell lines. Stanley Gartler and Walter Nelson-Rees were the first to publish on the contamination of various cell lines by HeLa.
He describes Nelson-Rees's identification of this pervasive worldwide problem — affecting even the laboratories of the best physicians, scientists, and researchers, including Jonas Salk — and many possibly career-ending efforts to address it. Gold contends that the HeLa problem was amplified by emotions, egos, and a reluctance to admit mistakes. It's all human — an unwillingness to throw away hours and hours of what was thought to be good research And it isn't limited to biology and cancer research.
Scientists in many endeavors all make mistakes, and they all have the same problems. Rather than focus on how to resolve the problem of HeLa cell contamination, many scientists and science writers continue to document this problem as simply a contamination issue — caused not by human error or shortcomings but by the hardiness, proliferating, or overpowering nature of HeLa.
Regrettably, cross-contamination and misidentification are still common within the research community. Many cell lines were cross-contaminated during establishment; this means that all work using those cell lines has incorrectly used the contaminant — which may come from a different species or a different tissue.
A cell line is considered to be misidentified if it no longer corresponds to the individual from whom it was first established. Many cases of misidentification are caused by cross-contamination, where another, faster growing, cell line is introduced into that culture. HeLa was described by Leigh Van Valen as an example of the contemporary creation of a new species, dubbed Helacyton gartleri , due to their ability to replicate indefinitely, and their non-human number of chromosomes.
The species was named after Stanley M. Gartler , whom Van Valen credits with discovering "the remarkable success of this species.
Van Valen proposed the new family Helacytidae and the genus Helacyton, as well as proposing a new species for HeLa cells in the same paper. However, this proposal has not been taken seriously by other prominent evolutionary biologists, nor by scientists in other disciplines.
Multiphoton fluorescence image of HeLa cells stained with the actin binding toxin phalloidin red , microtubules cyan and cell nuclei blue. The tubulin antibody shows the distribution of microtubules and the Ki antibody is expressed in cells about to divide. Preparation, antibodies and image courtesy of EnCor Biotechnology. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Hela disambiguation. Scanning electron micrograph of just-divided HeLa cells.
HeLa cells stained with Hoechst Viral multiplication in a stable strain of human malignant epithelial cells strain HeLa derived from an epidermoid carcinoma of the cervix". A list of cross-contaminated or misidentified cell lines". Some sources report her birthday as August 2, , vice August 1, Retrieved 18 July Cells from Lacks' tumor behaved differently.
Archived from the original on August 14, Retrieved March 2, Retrieved 23 April The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks. Journal of Experimental Medicine. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved. Journal of the American Statistical Association.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Journal of cellular physiology. Journal of Biomaterials China. Retrieved 3 April Retrieved 8 August The National Institutes of Health. A Conspiracy of Cells: Archived from the original PDF on Cell cycle Georgetown, Tex.
Helacyton gartleri Leigh Van Valen. Wikimedia Commons has media related to HeLa cells.